Saturday, April 28, 2007

Anatolian Connection and Hg R1a1

The assertion is that R1a1 originated in the region of Anatolia and the Black Sea. Notional Geographic yDNA migration map shows M173 mutating to R1a1-M17 and R1b-M343 in the Baltic regions of Central Asia.

The text has R1a1-M17 being born in the Ukraine and Souther Russia – which is the region immediately above the Black Sea. This is the region associated with the circa 800 CE conversion of the Khazar to Judaism.

We know (Behar etal) that R1a/R1a1represents fifty-two percent of Ashkenazi. We are also told that Haplogroup Q – which is common to the Khazar region between the Black and Caspian Seas – is also present at levels of five percent.

While the Q could clearly represent a Khazar artifact, even with the numerous assumptions as to mechanism, it is highly improbable that the highest occurring artifact from the Khazar region would be the lowest occurring after a mass conversion. Thus subordinating the R1a1 Khazar hypothesis to the probability that the conversion artifact is Q.

The idea that M343 (per map) originated in the Baltic region and spread to form the Viking hypothesis also fails associative testing.

The design of Viking ships mimics those of the Canaanite Sea Peoples of Anatolia. Their religious pantheon echos the Anatolian and Greek. They had runic writing akin to the Canaanite, and Iron technology from Anatolia. However, “Vikings” are or relatively modern origin and our interest is the R1b.

Stepping back to the time of Caesar (c70 BCE) we have the Britains described a naked painted people who possessed ships that could sail against the wind. The latter being a description of Tacking requiring a keel. The keel having been invented by the Sea peoples of Anatolia.

Moving back in time we note that the fabled Tin Islands were Britain of Roman times. Also that the Sea peoples populated the Atlantic Coast trade regions before 1500 BCE. They were also the Etruscan which gave Rome its culture (DNA tests of population and domestic animals showed them to be Anatolian).

Thus the R1b appearance along established routes created by the “Sea People” can be attributed to them and Anatolia.

The spread of the R1a/R1a1 mutation is said to have been spread by nomadic farmers. However, farming developed in Anatolia and the Levant, not in the Ukraine or Southern Russia – and certainly not in the Baltic region. Thus, if associated with farming, the mutation must have originated in Anatolia.

Next the highest ancient concentration of R1a1is south of the Black and Caspian Sea, not the north. The R1a/R1a1 mutation follows the earliest silk trade routes dating at least to the third or forth century BCE.

These routes, and the existence of R1b along the related sea routes argue that both the R1a/R1a1and R1b mutations are connected to the Anatolia Sea People and the trade routes centered in the Caucasus Mountain region where the earliest know city state and city warfare occurred in 4400 BCE.

The Caucasus Mountain region of Ararat is also the region associated with the Khaldi and the Biblical Abraham who, we are told, took his wife Sarah from a town in Anatolia before settling in Canaan.

All of this, and much more – including the Histories of Herodotus – argue R1a/R1a1 origins centered on the southern Black Sea shores, or the Caucasus mountain regions associated with Eden and the origins of farming.

It is also worth noting that all R1 mutations are associated with people who prize knowledge and learning for its own sake to the point of making it the first element associated with their pantheons deities – again, the early cultures of the region south of the Caspian and Black Sea in the area of Anatolia and extending as far east as the Indus valley; thus the region where the mutation probably originated


This graphic of the distribution of R1a1 shows they cluster in regions along the trade routes and where they were free from military conflict during the pre-European age.

This got me thinking Cain & Able.

Actually, I went fro the oldest city; which is in the Anatolian region at the southeastern base of the Caucasus Mountains.

This city dates to 4400 BCE and the archaeological evidence shows it was the location of a battle involving projectiles commonly associated with a shepard’s sling.

The sling, basically, is the type David is said to have used to defeat Goliath, a round rock launched from a leather cradle held between two very long strands of leather.

The sling is spun over the head and one leather strand is released at the appropriate time to initiate a high speed tangential flight of the rock toward the target.

In the Cain & Able story, farmer Cain and his pastoral brother, Able, make an offering to their deity, who appreciates the meat and fat more than he does the grain.

At one level, this is a story of a vegetarian and carnivore in which the vegetarian kills the carnivore. At another, we have a story of a farmer and city builder who is kills a shepard.

Symbolically the story is very interesting. The reaction the deity is to protect the killer my with the famed “mark of Cain”. The pastoral folk are effectively warned against attacking, or seeking revenge against, the person who killed one of their own.

We are then told that the seed of Cain become builders of cities and great inventors. Thou shalt not kill becomes a repeated theme; and, as with David, we have the nomadic and pastoral portrayed as the ones to fear.

The pastoral also provide the deity with the fat which people are told not to eat. Interestingly, the prohibition is also against salt – which is reserved for the deity – and, as the salt is needed to preserve the meat, the implication is a push toward vegetarianism.

If we look to the CMH Hereditary priesthood of Aaron – again associated with nomadic beduin herdsmen – we find what can be seen as a negotiated settlement with Levites (if we place them in the role of city dwellers out of Egypt).

Think of Middle Eastern history. The cities are the targets of attack by those nomadic elements from the hills and desert.

If the R1a1 were opposed to war – which is bad for merchant travel and business – they would instinctively move away from conflict areas while keeping bases for trade.

How much conflict is associated with the areas with the highest R1a1 presence? What learning or religious patterns are associated with those areas?

The Khazar are seen as Hun, or Hun subordinate clans. They are not fighters. When confronted with Islam and Christianity – two cultural sets who, by the seventh century, were devoted to war – they convert to Judaism.

The great sin of the Judaic occupation of the Promised Land – they failed to kill everyone; instead they made allies. The failing of the Sea People, the Hyksos, and Phoenician, they fought only when pressed into it; otherwise they lived on islands and avoided combat in favor of trade.

I am biased toward the idea that, if Moses and Aaron were brothers at all, they were half-brothers. Moses was Hyksos and R1a or R1b; Aaron was Haplogroup J. That would explain the representation of J (1 or 2) and R1(a or b) in the Sephardic and Ashkenazi communities.

Of course, that assumes an historical Moses to go with the Aaron of the CMH yDNA association.

Date Line April 28, 2007

OK. Let’s try to be good fishermen and not have anyone stab themselves with a hook. Let’s look at two worms.

“In terms of Eastern R1b ... , Cinnioglu et al. found that a variety of Eastern R1b has the greatest genetic variance in Southern Anatolia, with a strong presence also in Armenia (Weile et al), Iran and other nearby countries.”

Ten thousand years ago, agriculture emerged in the Levant (Southern Anatolia). Withe the emergence of agriculture and pastoral living came the evolution of the enzyme needed to process non-human milk sugar (lactose).

Obviously this is excluding reference to the Southern Levant (Israel region ) Natufian Culture which was transitionally agricultural 13,000 years ago.

As a post Ice age population, R1b should have been there, Native American’s (NA) were not – thus NA haplogroups lack the lactase enzyme. What other Haplogroups can be associated with agricultural development and possess early evidence of the lactase enzyme?

We know that the people of Anatolia, and the steppe nomads, drank horse milk – which appears to have the highest concentration of animal milk sugar associated with human diet. This yields a probable origin of the Steppe Nomad population in Anatolia. Herodotus reports the horse milk drinking and it is also reported among the Steppes Nomads from the Black Sea to Mongolia.

Some literature suggests early Romans apparently lacked lactose-tolerance. In African studies, the yDNA R1 Haplogroup is used as an indicator of the presence of the Lactase Gene and thus provides us a link back to pastoral Anatolia as an origin point.

Lactase-persistence is therefore a co-indicator, of sorts, which points to a Levant origin and the R1 places that origin in the northern Levant, or Southern Anatolia.

For R1a (aka M17 & HG3) Mukherjee etal, “High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India” shows a Turkish origin that ties this line to Anatolia.

In this study, the highest frequency of HG3 is among Moslem and Chemar populations; the latter being the youngest (newest migratory) group into the Indian sub-content.

One of the most studied populations is the Ashkenazi Levite. Within that population, Behar identifies four base mtDNA as founders, with none connected to the Caucasus, as opposed to Middle Eastern origin. One, Hg N1b is associated with Levant, Arabia and Egypt. Origin. In his conclusion, Behar states that, with regard to Ashkenazi Levites, he was able to “reconstruct a detailed phylogenetic tree for the major Ashkenazi Hg K and N1b, allowing the detection of a small set of only four individual female ancestors, likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool.”

As for Ashkenazi Levite males, Behar has found data, “confirms the presence of R1a1 as the modal haplogroup in the Ashkenazi Levite Jews (52% of chromosomes). This haplogroup is found at similarly high frequencies in the two Slavonic-speaking populations (Sorbians and Belorussians), but at a maximum frequency of only 5.8% among the other five Jewish data sets (mean frequency 3.2%).”

Based on Behar: Ashkenazi Israelites, Ashkenazi Cohanim, Sephardi Israelites, Sephardi Cohanim, and Sephardi Levites – who are Middle Eastern – are not relevant to an exploration of an Anatolian origin of R1a1. Equally irrelevant are any discussions of ice age, or pre-agrarian, pre-pastoral origins of R1 Haplogroups. The focus for genealogical purposes must be post-glacial pastoral migration.

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